Mix & Mastering

Mix & Mastering

Lecture & Workshop

The lecture and workshop will be held by Michele Gaggia in German and English language.
Location: the Recording Studio of the FH Salzburg.

Topics (winter semester)

Analogue and Digital Mixers

  • setting the input levels
  • metering, pan & balance
  • adding effects (insert or send/return)
  • using external effects
  • control surfaces

Control Rooms and Monitoring

  • control room design and acoustics: LEDE, RFZ, Non Environment, ESS
  • sound proofing and acoustic control
  • absorption, diffusion, reflection
  • main monitors, mid fields, near fields
  • stereo and 5.1 surround setups


  • what is mixing?
  • "technical" mix parameters and "musical goals" in a mix
  • places from where to start mixing
  • sound of single instruments in a mix
  • how to prevent instruments "fighting" with each other
  • positioning sounds in the stereo field, setting stereo width on stereo signals
  • minimal phase vs. linear phase EQ; passive vs active EQ
  • opto-compressor vs. VCA compressor
  • algorithmic reverb vs. impulse response reverb
  • the mixdown


  • what is mastering?
  • typical mastering tools and effects
  • what can (and should) be fixed/adjusted
  • mastering EQ and compressor
  • multi-band compressor
  • brickwall limiter
  • dithering, audio file format conversion
  • ISRC and UPC/MCN, PQ editing, DDP, etc.
  • Project presentation


Main Handouts

Additional Handouts

Recommended Literature

  • Henle, Hubert (2001) Das Tonstudio Handbuch.
    GC Carstensen Verlag: München. ISBN 3910098193 Amazon
  • Pieper, Frank (1999) Das Effekte Praxisbuch.
    GC Carstensen Verlag: München. ISBN 3910098169 Amazon
  • Owsinski, Bobby (1999) The Mixing Engineer's Handbook.
    Artist Pro - Mix Books: Vallejo (CA). ISBN 0872887235 Amazon
  • Owsinski, Bobby (2000) The Mastering Engineer's Handbook.
    Artist Pro - Mix Books: Vallejo (CA). ISBN 0872887413 Amazon
  • Shea, Mike (2002) How to build a small budget recording studio from scratch.
    McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0071387005 Amazon